Retinal macroaneurysms are acquired usually round dilations of the large arterioles of the retina they are commonly associated with macular exudation and hemorrhage which may result in decreased visual acuity a 10 incidence of bilateral disease exists and multiple aneurysms in the same eye occasionally are seen see the image below 1 . Hypertensive retinopathy is retinal vascular damage caused by hypertension signs usually develop late in the disease funduscopic examination shows arteriolar constriction arteriovenous nicking vascular wall changes flame shaped hemorrhages cotton wool spots yellow hard exudates and optic disk edema treatment is directed at controlling blood pressure and when vision loss occurs . Vascular also referred to as multi infarct parkinsonism is a form of atypical parkinsonism in which parkinsonian symptoms slow movements tremor difficulty with walking and balance stiffness and rigidity are produced by one or more small strokes rather than by gradual loss of nerve cells as seen in the more typical neurodegenerative parkinsons disease heading diagnosis . Aldrich em lee aw chen cs et al local intra arterial fibrinolysis administered in aliquots for the treatment of central retinal artery occlusion the johns hopkins hospital experience stroke 2008 jun 3961746 50 carter je chronic ocular ischemia and carotid vascular disease bernestein ef ed amaurosis fugax new york springer . Diabetes research and clinical practice is an international journal for health care providers and clinically oriented researchers that publishes high quality original research articles and expert reviews in diabetes and related areas the role of the journal is to provide a venue for dissemination of knowledge and discussion of topics related to diabetes clinical research and patient care
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